New taxa, names, and combinations by Harri Harmaja - an annotated list

The alphabetical list below comprises all the taxonomic and nomenclatural novelties I have made since the first ones, published in 1969, till the present day. The epithets of the taxa have been written in different colours according to the taxonomic group concerned: Agaricales s. lato, Pezizales Deuteromycetes, Vascular plants. If, on my present judgement, the status and/or nomenclature of a taxon has been changed, the usage preferred is given following a "=". Otherwise the name is considered appropriate as it is. Lastly, possible explanations for the changes as well as other annotations can be reached through a numbered link; these annotations are found after the list proper.

 

Alciphila Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 34. 2002.

Alciphila vulgaris Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 35. 2002.

 

Amylolepiota Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 39. 2002.

Amylolepiota lignicola (P.Karst.) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 40. 2002.

Boletellus fennicus Harmaja, Karstenia 39: 37. 1999.

Calocybe aromatica (Murr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 16. 1976.

Calocybe pusilla (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 51. 1979.

 

Caloscyphaceae Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 27. 2002.

 

Carex pallens (Fristedt) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 23: 148. 1986. = Carex pallidula Harmaja

Carex pallidula Harmaja (nom. nov.), Ann. Bot. Fennici 42: 221. 2005.

Clavicybe Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 41. 2002. = Ampulloclitocybe  Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys
Clavicybe avellaneialba (Murrill) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 42. 2002. = Ampulloclitocybe avellaneialba (Murrill) Harmaja
Clavicybe clavipes (Pers. : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 42. 2002. = Ampulloclitocybe clavipes (Pers. : Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo  & Vilgalys
Clavicybe squamulosoides (P.D.Orton) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 42. 2002. = Ampulloclitocybe squamulosoides (P.D.Orton) Harmaja

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude  subg. Roseospora Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 83. 1969. = ?Clitocybe subg. Pseudolyophyllum Sing.

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Clitocybe) sect. Alexandriformes Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 52. 1969.

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Clitocybe) sect. Bulluliferae (Sing.) Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 81. 1969. = Singerocybe Harmaja

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Clitocybe) sect. Clavipedes Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 58. 1969. = Ampulloclitocybe Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Clitocybe) sect. Gilvaoideae Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 70. 1969.

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Pseudolyophyllum) sect. Latisporae Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 100. 1969.

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Clitocybe) sect. Sinopicae Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 69. 1969.

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Pseudolyophyllum) sect. Strigipedes Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 108. 1969.

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Clitocybe) sect. Vernae (Sing.) Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 79. 1969.

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Roseospora sect. Roseospora) subsect. Epruinatae Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 90. 1969. = included in Clitocybe

Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude (subg. Roseospora sect. Roseospora) subsect. Pruinatae Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 86. 1969. = included in Clitocybe

Clitocybe agrestis Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 91. 1969.

Clitocybe amarescens Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 98. 1969. 1

Clitocybe dryadicola (Favre) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 17. 1976.

Clitocybe fennica Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 111. 1969.

Clitocybe gigas Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 29. 1978. = Infundibulicybe gigas (Harmaja) Harmaja 2

Clitocybe globispora Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 101. 1969.

Clitocybe gracilis (H. Bigel. & A.H. Smith) Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 72. 1969.

Clitocybe lapponica Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 68. 1969. = Infundibulicybe lapponica (Harmaja) Harmaja

Clitocybe lohjaënsis Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 112. 1969.

Clitocybe marginella Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 92. 1969.

Clitocybe menthiodora Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 107. 1969.

Clitocybe metachroides Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 99. 1969.

Clitocybe montana Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 19. 1976. = Infundibulicybe montana (Harmaja) Harmaja

Clitocybe orientalis Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 103. 1969.

Clitocybe ovispora (J.E.Lange) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 215. 2003.

Clitocybe rickenii (Singer) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 215. 2003.

Clitocybe ruderalis Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 76. 1969. 3

Clitocybe schulmannii Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 112. 1969. = Lyophyllum schulmannii (Harmaja) Harmaja

Clitocybe strigosa Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 109. 1969.

Clitocybe subcordispora Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 100. 1969.

Clitocybe subdryadicola Harmaja (nom. nov.), Karstenia 18: 29. 1978.

Clitocybe subsinopica Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 29. 1978.

Clitocybe ditopus (Fr.: Fr.) Gillet var. odorula (P. Karsten) Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 106. 1969.

Clitocybe phyllophila (Pers.: Fr.) Kumm. var. tenuis Harmaja, Karstenia 10: 88. 1969. = Clitocybe regularis Peck

Conocybe nemoralis Harmaja, Sydowia Beih. 8: 182. 1979.

Cystoderma adnatifolium (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 122. 1974. = Cystodermella adnatifolia (Peck) Harmaja 4
Cystoderma arcticum Harmaja, Karstenia 24: 31. 1984.
Cystoderma intermedium Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 27. 1979.
Cystoderma jasonis (Cooke & Massee) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 29. 1978.
Cystoderma lilacipes Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 29. 1978.
Cystoderma niveum Harmaja, Karstenia 25: 41. 1985.
Cystoderma saarenoksae Harmaja, Karstenia 25: 41. 1985.
Cystoderma terreii (Berk. & Broome) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 30. 1978. = Cystodermella cinnabarina (Alb. & Schwein. : Fr.) Harmaja
Cystoderma tuomikoskii Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 27. 1979.

Cystodermella Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 43. 2002.

Cystodermella adnatifolia (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 45. 2002.

Cystodermella ambrosii (Bres.) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 45. 2002.

Cystodermella cinnabarina (Alb. & Schwein. : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 45. 2002.

Cystodermella contusifolia (Pegler) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella cristallifera (Thoen) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella elegans (Beeli) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella granulosa (Batsch : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella japonica (Thoen & Hongo) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella luteohemisphaerica (Dennis) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella myriadocystis (Heinem. & Thoen) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella sipariana (Dennis) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

Cystodermella subpurpurea (A.H.Smith & Singer) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 46. 2002.

 

Flavoscypha Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 107. 1974. = Otidea (Pers.) Bonorden

Flavoscypha cantharella (Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 107. 1974. (sensu Harmaja) = Otidea concinna (Pers. : Fr.) Sacc.

Flavoscypha phlebophora (Berk. & Broome) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 107. 1974. = Otidea phlebophora (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.

Gyromitra Fr. subg. Discina (Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973.

Gyromitra accumbens Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 41. 1986.

Gyromitra ambigua (P. Karsten) Harmaja, Karstenia 9: 17. 1969.

Gyromitra apiculatula (McKnight) Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973. 5

Gyromitra columbiana Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 41. 1986. 5

Gyromitra fluctuans (Nyl.) Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 42. 1986. 5

Gyromitra geogenius (Donadini) Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 42. 1986.

Gyromitra intermedia (Benedix) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 30. 1976.

Gyromitra korfii (Raitv.) Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973. 5

Gyromitra larryi (McKnight) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 30. 1976.

Gyromitra leucoxantha (Bres.) Harmaja, Karstenia 9: 11. 1969.

Gyromitra longipes Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 16: 159. 1979.

Gyromitra macrospora (Bubák) Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973. = Gyromitra fluctuans (Nyl.) Harmaja

Gyromitra mcknightii Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 42. 1986. 5

Gyromitra melaleuca (Bres.) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 34. 1976. = Gyromitra melaleuca (Bres.) Donadini

Gyromitra microspora (Donad. & Boz.) Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 43. 1986.

Gyromitra montana Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973. 5

Gyromitra olympiana (Kanouse) Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973.

Gyromitra parvispora (Trigaux) Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 43. 1986. = Sowerbyella parvispora (Trigaux) J. Moravec

Gyromitra perlata (Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 9: 11. 1969.

Gyromitra recurva (Snyder) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 57. 1978. = Gyromitra melaleucoides (Seaver) Pfister

Gyromitra warnei (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973.

Helvella arctoalpina Harmaja, Karstenia 17: 58. 1977.

Helvella beatonii (Rifai) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 103. 1974. = Underwoodia beatonii Rifai

Helvella brevis (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 104. 1974.

Helvella confusa Harmaja, Karstenia 17: 43. 1977. 5

Helvella dryadophila Harmaja, Karstenia 17: 58. 1977. 5

Helvella hyperborea Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 57. 1978.

Helvella oblongispora Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 57. 1978. 6

Helvella pedunculata Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 57. 1978. 5

Helvella pocillum Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 30. 1976. 7

Helvella silvicola (Beck in Sacc.) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 103. 1974.

Helvella ulvinenii Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 42. 1979.

Helvella verruculosa (Sacc.) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 57. 1978.

Hygrophorus korhonenii Harmaja, Karstenia 25: 42. 1985.

Hygrophorus subviscifer (P.Karsten) Harmaja, Karstenia 25: 44. 1985.

Infundibulicybe Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 215. 2003.

Infundibulicybe altaica (Singer) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 216.

Infundibulicybe bresadolana (Singer) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 216.

Infundibulicybe catinus (Fr.) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 216.

Infundibulicybe costata (Kühner & Romagn.) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 216.

Infundibulicybe dryadum (Bon) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 216.

Infundibulicybe geotropa (Bull.) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 216.

Infundibulicybe gibba (Pers. : Fr.) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 217.

Infundibulicybe gigas (Harmaja) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 217.

Infundibulicybe glareosa (Röllin & Monthoux) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 217.

Infundibulicybe lapponica (Harmaja) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 217.

Infundibulicybe montana (Harmaja) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 217.

Infundibulicybe sinopicoides (Peck) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 217.

Infundibulicybe squamulosa (Pers. : Fr.) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 217.

 

Karstenellaceae Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 110. 1974.

Karstenella Harmaja, Karstenia 9: 20. 1969.

Karstenella vernalis Harmaja, Karstenia 9: 20. 1969.

Lactarius lapponicus Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 20. 1976. 8

Lactarius moseri Harmaja, Karstenia 25: 47. 1985. = Lactarius pilatii Schaefer

Lepista subg. Laevispora Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 132. 1974. = Clitocybe subg. Clitocybe

Lepista subg. Pseudolyophyllum (Singer) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = Clitocybe subg. Pseudolyophyllum Singer

Lepista (subg. Lepista) sect. Disciformes (Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = Clitocybe subg. Clitocybe sect. Clitocybe

Lepista (subg. Pseudolyophyllum) sect. Fragrans Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = included in Clitocybe

Lepista (subg. Lepista) sect. Gilva Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = included in Clitocybe

Lepista (subg. Pseudolyophyllum) sect. Metachroa Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = included in Clitocybe

Lepista (subg. Lepista) sect. Nuda Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = included in Clitocybe

Lepista (subg. Pseudolyophyllum) sect. Phyllophila Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = included in Clitocybe

Lepista aeruginosa (H.E.Bigelow) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe aeruginosa H.E.Bigelow

Lepista agrestis (Harmaja) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe agrestis Harmaja

Lepista albofragrans Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 53. 1978. = Clitocybe albofragrans

Lepista amarescens (Harmaja) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe amarescens Harmaja 1

Lepista diatreta (Fr. : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe diatreta

Lepista fasciculata Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 129. 1974. = ?Clitocybe ovispora (J.E.Lange) Harmaja

Lepista fragrans (Sow. : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976.  = Clitocybe fragrans 9

Lepista harmajae (Lamoure) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe harmajae Lamoure

Lepista idahoënsis (H.E.Bigelow) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe idahoënsis H.E.Bigelow

Lepista marginella (Harmaja) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe marginella Harmaja

Lepista metachroa (Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe metachroa

Lepista metachroides (Harmaja) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = Clitocybe metachroides Harmaja

Lepista nebularis (Batsch : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 91. 1974. = Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch : Fr.) P.Kumm. 10

Lepista odora (Bull. : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 15. 1976. = Clitocybe odora

Lepista phyllophila (Pers. : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 15. 1976. = Clitocybe phyllophila

Lepista polycephala Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 14. 1976. = ?Clitocybe rickenii (Sing.) Harmaja 11

Lepista polygonarum (Laursen, O.K.Miller & H.E.Bigelow) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 23. 2002. = Clitocybe polygonarum Laursen, O.K.Miller & H.E.Bigelow

Lepista regularis (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 15. 1976. = Clitocybe regularis Peck

Lepista robusta (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 15. 1976. = Clitocybe robusta Peck

Lepista singeri Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 130. 1974. = Clitocybe singeri (Harmaja) Harmaja

Lepista subalpina (H.E.Bigelow & A.H.Smith) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 91. 1974. = Clitocybe subalpina H.E.Bigelow & A.H.Smith 12

Lepista subconnexa (Murr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 11: 38. 1970. = Clitocybe subconnexa Murrill

Leucopholiota lignicola (P.Karst.) Harmaja, Phytotaxa 3: 59. 2010.

Leucoscypha ovilla (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 17: 73. 1977.

Leucoscypha ovilloides Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 43. 1986.

Lyophyllum piperatum (A.H. Smith) Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 24. 1979. = Gerhardtia piperata (A.H. Smith) Bon

Lyophyllum schulmannii (Harmaja) Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 51. 1979.

Lyophyllum subnitens (H. Bigelow) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 18. 1976.

Melanoleuca brachyspora Harmaja (nom. nov.), Karstenia 25: 44. 1985. 13

Melanoleuca brevispora Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 30. 1978. = Melanoleuca brachyspora Harmaja

Mycena lammiensis Harmaja, Karstenia 25: 44. 1985. = Prunulus lammiensis (Harmaja) Harmaja 14

Mycena occulta Harmaja, Karstenia 25: 45. 1985.

Mycena picta (Fr. : Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 52. 1979.

Omphalina subfumosa (H. Bigelow) Harmaja, Karstenia 19: 51. 1979.

Otidea angusta Harmaja, Karstenia 48: 35. 2009.

Otidea caeruleopruinosa Harmaja, Karstenia 48 37. 2009.

Otidea flavidobrunneola Harmaja, Karstenia 48: 38. 2009.

Otidea formicarum Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 31. 1976.

Otidea integra (Bres.) Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 43. 1986.

Otidea microspora (Kanouse) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 32. 1976.

Otidea myosotis Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 32. 1976.

Otidea nannfeldtii Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 31. 1976.

Otidea olivaceobrunnea Harmaja (nom. nov.), Phytotaxa 2: 49. 2009.

Otidea papillata Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 31. 1976.

Otidea propinquata (P. Karsten) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 32. 1976.

Otidea tuomikoskii Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 30. 1976.

Otidea unicisa (Peck) Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 44. 1986.

Peziza alcis ('alcidis') Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 44. 1986.

Peziza kallioi Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 46. 1986.

Peziza lohjaënsis Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 46. 1986.

Peziza perparva Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 47. 1986. 15

Pleurotus viscidus Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 30. 1978.

Prunulus lammiensis (Harmaja) Harmaja, Karstenia 42: 25. 2002.

Pseudoclitocybe atra (Vel.) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 126. 1974.

Pseudombrophila aggregata (Eckbl.) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 16: 160. 1979. 15, 16, 17

Pseudombrophila maekinenii Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 47. 1986.

Pseudombrophila microtetraspora Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 16: 161. 1979.

Pseudombrophila minor Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 16: 160. 1979.

Pseudombrophila obliquerimosa Harmaja, Karstenia 26: 48. 1986. = Pseudombrophila petrakii (Sacc.) Brumm.

Pseudombrophila tetraspora Harmaja, Ann, Bot. Fennici 16: 161. 1979. 17

Pseudorhizinaceae Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 111. 1974. = ?Discinaceae Benedix

Pseudorhizina californica (Phill.) Harmaja, Karstenia 13: 56. 1973.

Rhodocybe harperi (Murr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 30. 1978.

Rhodocybe smithii Harmaja (nom. nov.), Karstenia 14: 121. 1974. = Gerhardtia piperata (A.H. Smith) Bon

Rhododendron columbianum (Piper) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 27: 203. 1990. = Rhododendron ×columbianum (Piper) Harmaja 18

Rhododendron diversipilosum (Nakai) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 35: 263. 1999.

Rhododendron hypoleucum (Kom.) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 27: 203. 1990.

Rhododendron neoglandulosum Harmaja (nom. nov.), Ann. Bot. Fennici 27: 203. 1990.

Rhododendron subarcticum Harmaja (nom. nov.), Ann. Bot. Fennici 27: 203. 1990.

Rhododendron subulatum (Nakai) Harmaja, Ann. Bot. Fennici 39: 183. 2002.

Rhododendron tolmachevii Harmaja (nom. nov.), Ann. Bot. Fennici 27: 204. 1990.

Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja ['(Stokes) Harmaja'] (nom. nov.), Ann. Bot. Fennici 27: 204. 1990.

Singerella Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 114. 1974. = Singerocybe Harmaja

Singerella clitocyboides (Cooke & Massee) Harmaja, Karstenia 15: 17. 1976. [= Singerocybe clitocyboides (Cooke & Massee) nom. prov.]

Singerella hydrogramma (Bull. & Vent.: Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 114. 1974. = Singerocybe hydrogramma (Bull. & Vent.: Fr.) Harmaja

Singerocybe Harmaja, Karstenia 27: 71. 1988.

Singerocybe hydrogramma (Bull. & Vent.: Fr.) Harmaja, Karstenia 27: 71. 1988.

Singerocybe phaeophthalma (Pers.) Harmaja, Karstenia 27: 72. 1988. = ?Singerocybe hydrogramma (Bull. & Vent.: Fr.) Harmaja

Singerocybe viscida Harmaja, Karstenia 27: 72. 1988.

Sowerbyella bauerana (Cooke) Harmaja, Karstenia 24: 29. 1984. = ?Sowerbyella radiculata (Sow.: Fr.) Nannf.

Sowerbyella brevispora Harmaja, Karstenia 24: 29. 1984.

Squamanita basii Harmaja, Karstenia 27: 73. 1988.

Squamanita umbilicata Harmaja, Karstenia 27: 73. 1988.

Suillus lapponicus Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 27. 1978.

Tazzetta ('Tarzetta') pusilla Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 116. 1974.

Tazzetta ('Tarzetta') spurcata (Pers.) Harmaja, Karstenia 14: 119. 1974.

Tubaria confragosa (L.) Harmaja, Karstenia 18: 55. 1978. 19

 

 

1. This species is fairly commonly reported from Central Europe. These records should perhaps be revised as they seem to refer a species favouring distinctly human-influenced habitats. Lepista amarescens, as I know it, is a true forest species with slightly bitter taste in old caps.

2. Clitocybe gigas is, though hesitatingly, included in C. maxima (Fl. Wett.: Fr.) P.Kumm. by Gulden (in Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H. (eds.): Nordic Macromycetes, Vol. 2. 1992). This is not correct: C. maxima (if this old name can be interpreted at all) is a different taxon, described from temperate Central Europe. C. gigas and C. maxima are both closely related to C. geotropa (Bull.) Quél., C. gigas possessing a pronouncedly northern (to alpine?) distribution. Even if I succeeded in treating some species in my thesis (1969), it turned out that there are still several undescribed species of the C. geotropa aggregate on calcareous soils in northern rich forests and alpine Dryas vegetation of Fennoscandia. 

3. Clitocybe ruderalis is included in C. dealbata (Sow.: Fr.) P.Kumm. by Gulden (in Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H. (eds.): Nordic Macromycetes, Vol. 2. 1992). The first-named was admittedly based on one specimen only but according to my experience in Clitocybe the spore difference, particularly, is significant. - In fact, in describing C. ruderalis I wanted to give an example of undescribed species in the section Candicantes (Quél.) Singer & Digilio. In revising the genus Clitocybe in Fennoscandia it turned out that there were too many very closely related small whitish species of that section to be adequately treated within the scope of that revision. A few appeared to have a name; e.g. I supposed that a few specimens might represent the North American C. truncicola (Peck) Sacc. but it was not possible to confirm this identification (nowadays this species has been actually reported from Europe). However, many of the old names referring to whitish small species are impossible to identify with a reasonable certainty. But most of this kind of clitocybes appeared (and appear still!) to be unnamed though some new species have subsequently been described in Central Europe. A few grow in forest litter being closely related to C. candicans (Pers.: Fr.) P.Kumm. but most of these poorly known fungi are inhabitants of open habitats (meadows, fields, seashores, subalpine and alpine plant communities). - Interestingly, a proportion of similar mushrooms in similar habitats have cyanophilic walls in their spores; their correct placement is rather in Lepista.

4. The distinction between C. adnatifolia and C. granulosa (Batsch: Fr.) Harmaja may sometimes appear difficult. The reason in some cases may be the apparent existence in boreal forests of a couple of undescribed species which appear partly intermediate between the two first-named (see # 78 in the publication list!).

5. A most notable contribution on Helvellaceae s. lato in N-NW North America was published by Abbott and Currah (Mycotaxon 62: 1-125. 1997). Among other things a very thorough knowledge and use of literature is obvious. However, the concepts of Gyromitra gigas (Krombh.) Quélet, G. perlata (Fr.) Harmaja, and Helvella leucomelaena (Pers.) Nannf., in particular, are definitely too collective. The authors reduce several species described by me or some other mycologists to the synonymy of these and some other old names. The value of the differentiating characters, given by me and others, is nullified e.g. by stating that "the stipe development may vary within a collection and with habitat", "the apiculi and ornamentation of the spores vary with age and within one apothecium", and "the differences in the elevations of the collecting localities obscure the use of phenology as a taxonomic character". Every one of us makes mistakes and miscalculations; synonyms are bound to be born every now and then. However, it is regrettable that trivialities and self-evident facts such as above are presented, as if such points of view were not carefully considered and weighted in every case. Many mycologists not only take the differences in elevations into consideration; they even actively make use of such knowledge. Even minor differences in distribution in North Europe may be informative to those who have benefitted of good teaching in biogeography. Likewise, a knowledge of calciphilous indicator species and the distribution of calcareous soils are sometimes helpful in taxonomy. As to Gyromitra, it was also stated in the above paper that "no macroscopic differences exist" (to support the taxonomic distinction based on microscopic characters). It should be generally known that already in the passed century many compatibility tests proved the existence of sibling or biological species in macrofungi. And the DNA analyses of the present day generally give support to a "narrow" rather than a "wide" species concept.

6. A black and white photograph of the poorly known H. oblongispora is found in my paper # 60 in the publication list, and a coloured one in Breitenbach & Kränzlin 1984 (Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 1 Ascomycetes. - 310 pp. Luzern). In the last-named work this species is illustrated in Fig. 26 under the incorrect and invalidly published name "Paxina costifera (Nannf.) Stangl". - Both these photographs display a possible new specific character of H. oblongispora, unnoticed by me until afterwards: the cups have probably always a few, often more or less rounded holes, some mm in diametre! The holes in the apothecia of this species appear more regular in shape and occurrence than those met with in other cup fungi every now and then. The reason for these holes remains to be clarified (autolysis or a pathogenic fungus?).

7. Dissing (in various publications) and a few others insist that the name Helvella aestivalis (Heim & Remy) Diss. & Raitv. (basionym Acetabula aestivalis Heim & Remy, Bull. Soc. mycol. France 41: 460. 1925) is the correct one for H. pocillum (in fact, the latter name is not even mentioned as a younger synonym or taken into account in distribution maps). As original material of H. aestivalis is not available, its characters and taxonomic status must be judged on the basis of its original description which includes macroscopic and microscopic illustrations. On my judgement they are different species: 1) H. pocillum has smaller apothecia with thinner flesh; the fresh cups reach about 3 cm in height and diameter (vs. 7 cm high and broad), 2) its apothecia are usually almost sessile while H. aestivalis has either a well-differentiated small stipe or a clearly contracted apothecium base, 3) in the former, the base of the cup is irregularly lacunose-ribbed, in the latter the ribs of the cup base/stipe are more pronounced, higher and often parallel, 4) the asci are broader (18-25 µm vs. ca. 18 µm), 5) the ascus wall is thickened, being about 1.0-1.4 µm (at least in the careful drawings by Heim and Remy such thickening is not evident), 6) the paraphysis tips are broader in H. pocillum (6.5-11.0 µm vs. ca. 7 µm), 7) the terminal cell of the paraphyses is filled with conspicuous dark red-brown granules (vs. with ochraceous less conspicuous contents), 8) H. pocillum is probably a true arctic-alpine species (always by Dryas?) while all the three collections of H. aestivalis mentioned in the original description have been made in upper oroboreal (subalpine) coniferous forest (Pinus cembra, Larix decidua). - No doubt H. aestivalis is a distinct species of the French Alps; it is uncertain whether there are any reliable  later reports of it. From the original description it is impossible to judge to which species group it belongs: in the neighbourhood of H. leucomelaeana (Pers.) Nannf., H. acetabulum (L.: Fr.) Quél. or H. silvicola (Beck) Harmaja.

8. According to Heilmann-Clausen, Verbeken & Vesterholt (The genus Lactarius. Fungi of Northern Europe 2. Copenhagen 1998) Lactarius duplicatus A.H. Smith would provide an older name for L. lapponicus. As was told in my original publication, the descriptions of e.g. L. duplicatus and L. substriatus A.H. Smith, both described from N. America, were consulted before publishing L. lapponicus. In fact, I borrowed and examined the types of both but the arrival of the loan was so delayed that it was no more possible to insert a mention about the type studies in my publication. The type studies confirmed that L. lapponicus is distinct from these N. American species: the spores differed to some degree and the pileocystidia were clearly distinct. L. duplicatus and L. substriatus are apparently North American species, with distribution areas in somewhat more southern vegetation zones than that of L. lapponicus.

9. Lepista fragrans is an exception among those supposedly smooth-spores species which traditionally were included in Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude but which I transferred to Lepista (Fr.) W.G. Smith: besides being cyanophilic, the spore wall is also warted. Consequently, this species fulfills the 'classic' diagnostic characters of Lepista: spores that are pinkish buff in deposit and possess a warted cyanophilic wall. Gulden (Sydowia 36: 62. 1983) admits all this; however she does not approve the transfer of the species to Lepista but treats it still under Clitocybe (e.g., in Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H. (eds.): Nordic Macromycetes, Vol. 2. 1992).

10. This common and well-known species was, like many others usually treated under Clitocybe, transferred by me  to Lepista because of some spore characters. Studies of the spores, under the light microscope with cotton blue staining, revealed that in some species the outer layer stained while in the others it remained unstained. The first-named were generally transferred to Lepista which is characterized through a cyanophilic spore wall. The taxonomic value of different staining of the spore walls in the Agaricales have often been underestimated. However, differences in staining are due to different ultrastructures of the walls! TEM studies of the warted spores of Lepista s. str. (sensu Singer) show a dark-appearing layer outermost: it is called the myxosporium (or, more exactly, the interstratum) e.g. by Clémençon (in Singer: The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 3rd ed.. 1975). The myxosporium is probably composed of mucopolysaccharides. This layer is analogous to the secondary wall (perispore) of the spores of the Pezizales. It is this interstratum that is stained by cotton blue. It has generally remained unnoticed that the presence of the interstratum in the spores of Clitocybe/Lepista nebularis has actually been verified with TEM (by Clémençon, as above). In fact, in the table in p. 89 of the contribution cited the wall architecture of Clitocybe nebularis is described as identical with that of Lepista. The hyaline, thin-walled, non-cyanophilic spores of many species of Tricholomataceae, i.e. the prevailing spore type in Clitocybe s. str., have not yet been studied adequately with the transmission electron microscope. However, it may be assumed that their walls lack an interstratum. The spore wall structure of these species would thus deviate markedly from that present in Lepista s. lato. - Bresinsky and Schneider (Biochem. System. Ecol. 3: 129-135. 1975) published a most interesting paper on nitrate reduction in Fungi and the use of this character in taxonomy. All six species examined by them of Lepista sensu Singer were able to reduce nitrate, i.e. assimilate nitrate-nitrogen. Their study also included four of those species of Clitocybe sensu Singer which have been transferred to Lepista by me (e.g., C. nebularis): all of them were reducers, too. All three non-reducers of Clitocybe, including C. gibba (Pers.: Fr.) Kumm., have been left in Clitocybe by me. I was unaware of the study of Bresinsky and Schneider when revising the generic limit between Clitocybe and Lepista. It would certainly be worth of further work to find out whether the capacity of nitrate reduction is indeed a generic character of Lepista sensu lato.

11. According to Gulden (Sydowia 36: 59-74. 1983) Clitocybe polygonarum Laursen, Miller & Bigelow 1976 and Lepista polycephala Harmaja 1976 are younger synonyms of Lepista multiformis (Romell) Gulden. This is not true, my fungus being distinct from those two. - Several collections, belonging to this group of Lepista with brown cespitose fruit bodies, have been collected in Finland, from the south within the area of the oak (Quercus robur) to the northern boreal zone (but apparently not from subalpine or alpine areas). This material is variable: variation is present in the darkness of the cap colour, degree of hygrophanity of the cap, attachment of the lamellae, spacing of the lamellae, size of the spores, and ornamentation of the spores. Several species, partly undescribed, are obviously involved. My experience with Lepista sensu lato in North Europe suggests that this genus contains several undescribed species. Much work is needed with them as the spore shape is boringly uniform in the genus. - L. rickenii Sing. 1948 would perhaps be a better guess in the search for an older name for L. polycephala.

12. Gulden (Sydowia 36: 59-74. 1983) synonymized this species with Lepista pseudoectypa (M. Lange) Gulden. This may well be true. However, I suspect that this taxonomic group contains more species than we realize at present. Thus, names should be reduced to synonyms only after very careful studies. In this case it should be checked, e.g., whether the spores of L. subalpina are more broadly ellipsoid.

13. This species is not mentioned at all in Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H. (eds.): Nordic Macromycetes Vol. 2 (1992).

14. In Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H. (eds.): Nordic Macromycetes Vol. 2 (1992) Mycena lammiensis Harmaja is mentioned as occurring in Finland with Alnus. The description of the close relative of this species, the pronouncedly southern M. pelianthina (Fr.) Quél., includes deviating northern occurrences and growing with Alnus in Norway and Sweden. These features suggest that M. lammiensis has been included in M. pelianthina as concerns those countries but kept separate concerning Finland!

15. N. Sagara has since long ago studied in Japan how fungi (especially macrofungi) react to different kinds of more or less sudden accesses of nitrogen sources (especially ammonia, NH4OH ), whether by natural processes or by experimental treatments (e.g., Contr. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ. 24: 205-276, Pls. 1-7. 1975). Sagara proposes the nomination 'ammonia fungi' for species preferring this kind of nutrition. Interestingly, species producing fruit bodies in such experiments include Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schw.: Fr.) Pfister, Fimaria sp. and Peziza sp. Observations in North Europe suggest that B. terrestris and the Nannfeldtiella group of the genus Pseudombrophila Boud. are and Peziza perparva Harmaja may be true obligate ammonia fungi. They use the spontaneous rich access of urine sprinkled on the forest surface by certain voluminous animals, elks (Alces alces) and a few of its relatives (see also annotation #16). Though having visited in Finland, Sagara seems to be unaware of this situation in N. Europe. - Being ammonia fungi, in one kind or other, appears to be a generic character of Pseudombrophila (incl. Fimaria Vel. and Nannfeldtiella Eckbl.)! This conclusion can be referred from the habitat descriptions of the species in van Brummelen's world monograph on Pseudombrophila (Libri Botanici Vol. 14.  1995), though he himself does not express it. The different species grow on many kinds of dung, on substrates contaminated by dung or urine, on decaying plant materials, on animal cadavers, on rotting man-made materials, on plant litter treated with urea. Such substrates are expected to offer a nice supply of ammonia. Only rarely collections were made from soil without an obvious contamination of an ammonia source. Only one infrequent species has a deviating choice of substrate: burnt ground. 

16. All the five species of North Europe belonging to the Nannfeldtiella group of Pseudombrophila Boud., and which I know personally, possess a white subiculum on which the apothecia develop. Almost always these species grow intimately associated with Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schw.: Fr) Pfister, another representative of the Pezizales. Also the latter has a white subiculum on which the apothecia lie. In his world monograph (Libri Botanici Vol. 14. 1995) van Brummelen distinguishes between the subicula of some Pseudombrophila species and that of the Byssonectria species, telling that the subicular hyphae are different in these genera e.g. as to diametre; this concurs with my observations. However, in the ecological section and the species descriptions van Brummelen only states that the Pseudombrophila apothecia are associated with and growing on the subiculum of B. terrestris, which is somewhat confusing. Though having not proved experimentally, it appears probable that the fungi of these two  genera are profiting a common source of energy, i.e. sharing the same curious ecological niche, rather than being in a  symbiotic relationship or one parasitizing the other. Also additional fungal and even algal species may favour this niche. - The habitat to which the above species of Pseudombrophila and Byssonectria are probably strictly confined, is characterized in the monograph as places where elks (Alces alces) live, or their sleeping places, or near elk dung, or where elk has urinated. The last-named, exact definition is the preferred one among the Fennoscandian mycologists though no direct evidence exists. The niche where these fungi grow in the spring, is probably the very spot where an elk has urinated in the previous winter. Thus these species would use the ammonia of the urine as the source of nitrogen.

17. The world monograph of the genus Pseudombrophila Boud. by J. van Brummelen (Libri Botanici Vol. 14. 1995) is of the same high quality as his other contributions. However, I consider it an error to lump together P. aggregata, P. guldeniae Svrček, and P. tetraspora. They belong to Pseudombrophila sect. Nannfeldtiella as classified in the monograph mentioned (but has this sectional combination ever been published?). To me they are three different species; all the types have been compared. I am familiar with these fungi both in the field and the laboratory since long ago. They have been collected and studied in Finland perhaps more than elsewhere: van Brummelen had from Finland available about twice as many specimens of the Nannfeldtiella group as from the rest of the world! In lumping these species into one (bearing the oldest name P. guldeniae), van Brummelen is reasoning as if these species were based on the spore number solely. However, from the beginning (Ann. Bot. Fennici 16. 1979) I have emphasized some macroscopic characters and the microscopic features of the hairs of the external surface of the apothecium (the hyaline hairs in its main part; the hairiness towards the margin of the cup being irrelevant here). - P. guldeniae is a macroscopically distinct species, probably only known from the type locality in Czech republic. The apothecia are 6 mm in diametre at most, brownish everywhere, have a sparsely hairy outside, and are shortly stipitate; in age the cup expands to become plane and even slightly convex. Basally each stipe is connected through some hyphae with a dead spruce needle (see Fig. 4 in the original description: Česká Mykol. 20: 14. 1966). The asci are four-spored, the spores being slightly smaller than in P. tetraspora. The rather sparse hairs of the external surface differ somewhat both from those of P. aggregata and from those of P. tetraspora. The fungus was collected in the latter half of May in southern Bohemia, near deer dung. It is to be emphasized that neither the presence of any subiculum nor of Byssonectria apothecia were mentioned in the protologue. The above concerns the type collection of P. guldeniae  (I do not take any position to a later report referred to it: J. Moravec: Česká Mykol. 30: 5-7. 1976). - To the contrary of P. guldeniae, P. aggregata and P. tetraspora have cupulate sessile apothecia on a white subiculum, a strictly vernal fruiting period, and occur in North Europe in places inhabited by elks (Alces alces). They are separated from each other exactly through those macroscopic and microscopic characters which were given in my first paper (1979, though admittedly in a too condensed form). Though the magnification is too low, the differences in their hairs can be seen to some extent in the Plate 22 in van Brummelen's monograph (b: P. aggregata, d: P. tetraspora). The occurrence in both of them of asci or whole apothecia with reduced spore numbers, also observed by me afterwards, does not affect the distinctiveness of these species. As in P. minor, the spores from four-spored asci in P. aggregata do not deviate significantly in size from those born in eight-spored asci. The true P. aggregata in its habitat is illustrated in an excellent coloured photograph taken by T. Schumacher (Plate 8 in the monograph of van Brummelen). When different-looking fungi share the same habitat, or ecological niche, as mixed or adjoining stands (and are collected to become mixed herbarium specimens), it can usually be considered as a biological proof for the differences being rather genetically controlled than caused by environmental factors. Many taxonomists are well acquainted with the use of this 'growing experiment arranged by Nature'. Fig. 6 in Harmaja 1986 (Karstenia 26: 45) represents such a mixed specimen: besides apothecia of Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schw.: Fr.) Pfister, the figure shows the large, fleshy, externally densely white-pubescent cups of P. tetraspora contrasting with the small, dark, sparsely pubescent apothecia of P. aggregata.

18. Rhododendron columbianum is commonly considered a hybrid between R. groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd and R. neoglandulosum Harmaja, e.g. by Small and Catling (CBA/ABC Bulletin 33(3): 32. 2000). The taxon would anyway appear to deserve a binomial of its own as it is known to occur in large areas independently, i.e., it partially possesses a distribution of its own. Hence, the name of the plant should preferably be written as follows: Rhododendron ×columbianum (Piper) Harmaja.

19. Sometimes (e.g., in Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H. (eds.): Nordic Macromycetes, Vol. 2. 1992) R. Kühner ("Kühn.") is given as the author to have transferred this species to Tubaria (W.G. Smith) Gillet and made the resulting new combination. Even though Kühner was the first to find out that apparently correct placement of Fries´ Agaricus confragosus (in Trav. Labor. La Jaysinia 3. 1969), the combination proposed by him was not validly published as he failed to cite the publication of the basionym. - Several characters common to T. confragosa and the type species of Tubaria, T. furfuracea (Pers.: Fr.) Gillet are treated in my paper where the first-named was transferred to Tubaria. Unfortunately,  my report of two taxonomically most important properties has remained unnoticed: that the walls of mature spores are cyanophilic, and that the spores are binucleate.

Created in 2000. Latest revision May 13, 2012.


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